People's rights vs citizen's rights

Are you one of the People of the United States, as contemplated by the U.S. Constitution Preamble? Or, are you one of the citizens of the United States, as defined in the U.S. Constitution 14th Amendment?

Your answer affects the rights you have.

If you are one of the People of the United States, then all ten amendments are available to you. You have natural rights If you are a citizen of the United States, then you have civil rights [properly called civil privileges]. see Senate Document 112-9, pp. 1064, 1065, Footnote 37, for details summarized here.

Amendments available to U.S. citizens:

Religion (free exercise, establishment)
2: Right to keep and bear arms

4: Search and seizure


Double jeopardy
Just compensation
6: (protection has been diluted)
Speedy trial
Public trial
Jury trial
Impartial Jury
Notice of charges
Compulsory Process
8: Cruel and unusual punishment
Amendments not available to U.S. Citizens:
3: Quartering troops in homes (no cases)

5: Grand Jury indictment

7: Jury trial in civil cases


Bail (mostly)
Excessive fines under equal protection

Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation document the legal effect of your answer. An edition of the document and subsequent revisions is given free to all elected and past senators, congressmen, and vice presidents, delegates, and resident commissioners upon timely request to the Government Printing Office.

The doctrine of selective incorporation is the dominant doctrine for incorporating portions of the Bill of Rights for application to citizens of the United States.

You may download a copy from the U.S. Goverment here.

For related information, see Republic vs. Democracy